Toyota 3S-FE Engine (3S-GE, 3S-GTE)
|Manufacturer|| Kamigo Plant
Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky
|Also called||Toyota 3S|
|Cylinder block alloy||Cast-iron|
4 valves per cylinder
|Piston stroke, mm (inch)||86 (3.39)|
|Cylinder bore, mm (inch)||86 (3.39)|
|Compression ratio||8.5 (3S-GTE Gen. 1/Gen. 3)
8.8 (3S-GTE Gen. 2)
9 (3S-GTE Gen. 4)
9.2 (3S-GE Gen. 1)
9.8 (3S-FC, 3S-FE, 3S-FSE)
10 (3S-GE Gen. 2)
10.3 (3S-GE Gen. 3)
11.1 (3S-GE Gen. 4)
11.5 (3S-GE Gen. 5)
|Displacement||1998 cc (121.9 cu in)|
|Power output||82 kW (111 HP) at 5,600 rpm
85 kW (115 HP) at 5,600 rpm
90 kW (122 HP) at 5,600 rpm
94 kW (128 HP) at 6,000 rpm
96 kW (130 HP) at 6,000 rpm
103 kW (140 HP) at 6,200 rpm
110 kW (150 HP) at 6,000 rpm
115 kW (156 HP) at 6,600 rpm
132 kW (179 HP) at 7,000 rpm
136 kW (185 HP) at 6,000 rpm
140 kW (190 HP) at 7,000 rpm
147 kW (200 HP) at 7,000 rpm
156 kW (212 HP) at 7,600 rpm
165 kW (225 HP) at 6,000 rpm
180 kW (245 HP) at 6,000 rpm
191 kW (260 HP) at 6,200 rpm
|Torque output||166 Nm (122 lb·ft) at 3,200 rpm
162 Nm (132 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpm
169 Nm (125 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpm
178 Nm (131 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpm
178 Nm (131 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpm
175 Nm (129 lb·ft) at 4,800 rpm
192 Nm (142 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpm
186 Nm (137 lb·ft) at 4,800 rpm
192 Nm (142 lb·ft) at 4,800 rpm
250 Nm (184 lb·ft) at 3,600 rpm
210 Nm (155 lb·ft) at 6,000 rpm
210 Nm (155 lb·ft) at 6,000 rpm
220 Nm (162 lb·ft) at 6,400 rpm
304 Nm (224 lb·ft) at 3,200 rpm
304 Nm (224 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpm
324 Nm (239 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpm
|HP per liter||55.6
|Weight, kg (lbs)||143 (315) – 3SGE engine|
|Fuel consumption, L/100 km (mpg)
|for Celica GT Turbo
|Turbocharger|| Naturally aspirated
|Oil consumption , L/1000 km
(qt. per miles)
|up to 1.0
(1 qt. per 750 miles)
|Recommended engine oil||5W-30
|Engine oil capacity, L (qt.)||3.9 (4.1) — 3S-GTE 1 Gen.
3.9 (4.1) — 3S-FE/3S-GE 2 Gen
4.2 (4.4) — 3S-GTE 2 Gen.
4.5 (4.75) — 3S-GTE 3 Gen./4 Gen./5 Gen.
4.5 (4.75) — 3S-GE 3 Gen./4 Gen.
5.1 (5.4) – 3S-GE 5 Gen.
|Oil change interval, km (miles)||5,000-10,000
|Normal engine operating temperature, °C (F)||~95 (203)|
|Engine lifespan, km (miles)
-No life span loss
|The engine is installed in||Toyota Avensis
Toyota Carina E
Lexus IS200 / Toyota Altezza
Toyota Town Ace
Toyota 3S is one of the most mass produced motors of Toyota S-series. The production of 3S started in 1984 on the basis of 2S cylinder block. The diameter of 3S cylinders is up to 86 mm. Toyota 3S also has a new crankshaft with a piston stroke of 86 mm.
The replace of cylinder head by a 16 valve twincam has greatly improved the engine performance. As there are no hydraulic lifters on the 3S engine, you need to adjust the valves every 20,000 miles (30,000 km) of mileage. Valve clearances for a cold engine are as follows: inlet 0.19 – 0.29 mm, exhaust 0.28 – 0.38 mm. 3S GTE/GE firing order – 1-3-4-2.
The timing gear uses a belt requiring replacement every 60,000 miles (100,000 km) of mileage. There were also some other S engine versions produced on the basis of Toyota 3S: 1.8-liter 4S and 2.2-liter 5S.
1AZ-FE replaced 3S in 2000. Toyota 3S, however, has not been completely superseded until 2007.
Over the long period of production, Toyota 3S has been corrected, modified and improved. Below you will find a detailed overview of each version.
Toyota 3S engine modifications and differences
1. 3S-FC (1986 – 1991) is a type of engine with a carburetor fuel feed system designed especially for such cheap modifications as Camry V20 and Holden Apollo. The compression ratio is 9.8, power is 111 horsepower at 5,600 rpm, torque is 166 Nm (122 lb•ft) at 4,400 rpm.
2. 3S-FE (1986 – 2000) is a type of engine with an injector fuel feed system. It is the main 3S engine. Two ignition coils are used there. The compression ratio of 3S-FE is 9.8 and its power is from 115 HP to 130 HP, depending on a type and broach. The motor was installed in Avensis, Caldina, Carina, Camry, Celica, Corona, Ipsum, MR2, RAV4.
3. 3S-FSE D4 (1997 – 2003) is the first Toyota engine with direct fuel injection. Variable valve timing technology VVTi with an inlet valve, variable intake system, modified pistons, altered injectors and spark plugs, electronic throttle body, valve EGR were installed on that engine. The 3S-FE compression ratio was 9.8, its power was 150 HP at 6,000 rpm, and torque was 192 Nm (142 lb•ft) at 4,000 rpm.
In spite of its workability, the 3S-FSE engine is not as reliable, as 3S-FE. The main problems are connected with the high pressure fuel pump (HPFP) failures, EGR failures, inlet manifold demanding a regular scour. Besides, there can be some problems connected with the catalytic converter, fuel injectors demanding a constant care and scour, and spark plugs condition demanding a constant control, etc.
4. 3S-GE (1985 – 2005) is a sporting type of the 3S-FE engine. The major difference between the 3SGE and 3SFE is the usage of a modified cylinder head developed by the Yamaha specialists. During the whole period of its production, the motor underwent changes five times:
4.1. 3S-GE Gen 1 (1985 – 1989) is the first generation with a compression ratio of 9.2. Its weak type had a capacity of 140 horsepower at 6,200 rpm and a torque of 175 Nm (129 lb•ft) at 4,800 rpm. The engine was mounted on Celica GT-S T160.
At the same time, the Japanese automobile market was provided with the 3S-GE Gen 1 type equipped with a T-VIS variable intake system. The power of such an engine has increased to 160 HP at 6,400 rpm. with a torque of 186 Nm (137 lb•ft) at 4,800 rpm. The engine is common for Camry V10/V20, Corona T150.
4.2. 3S-GE Gen 2 (1989 – 1993) is the second 3S-GE engine type. The engine is equipped with a variable length intake manifold ACIS. Its camshafts have the following features: duration 244 deg, lift 8.5 mm. The 3S-GE Gen 2 compression ratio equals 10, the power has been increased to 156 HP at 6,600 rpm, and its torque is 186 Nm (137 lb•ft) at 4,800 rpm.
4.3. 3S-GE Gen 3 (1993 – 1998) is a third 3S-GE type. Its camshafts have been modified again. They are provided for the cars equipped with an automatic transmission, and have the following features: duration 240/240 deg, lift 8.7/8.2 mm. For the cars with a manual transmission the features are as follows: duration 254/240 deg, lift 9.8/8.2 mm. The 3S-GE Gen 3 compression ratio has increased to 10.3 and its power is 180 HP at 7,000 rpm.
4.4. 3S-GE Gen 4 BEAMS/Red Top (1997 – 1998) is the fourth 3S-GE generation. The engines are famous for the usage of variable valve timing technology VVTi, its inlet valves has been enlarged to 34.5 mm. and the outlet valves to 29.5 mm. Besides, the new camshafts with the following features: duration 248/248 deg and lift 8.56/8.31 mm, have been mounted. The 3S-GE Red Top compression ratio has increased to 11.1 and its power has reached 200 HP at 7,000 rpm, with a torque of 210 Nm (155 lb•ft) at 6,000 rpm. The cars are equipped with an automatic transmission and their power is lowered to 190 HP. That engine is typical of Caldina, Celica T200, and MR2.
The 3S-GE Gen 4 Grey Top with a black valve cover was also produced. Its capacity comprised 180 and 190 horsepower. It is located under the Caldina and RAV4 hood.
4.5. 3S-GE Gen 5 (1998 – 2005) is the fifth and the last 3S-GE generation. The 3S-GE Gen 5 type is known for its usage of a Dual VVT-i variable valve timing technology. The valves are similar because of their applying with the 3S-GE Gen 1-3 engine. The type’s power is 200 HP.
Besides, the type with a manual transmission have the different cams, titanium valves, compression ratio was increased up to 11.5, enlarged 35 mm inlet valves, and 29.5 mm outlet valves. The power of such a type equals 210 HP at 7,500 rpm. with a torque equalling 220 Nm (162 lb•ft) at 4,800 rpm.
5. 3S-GTE (1986 – 2007). While developing the GE type, they were producing a well known turbo modification with a GTE-index. The main difference between the 3SGTE and 3SGE types is in the application of the turbosupercharger.
5.1 3S-GTE Gen 1 (1986 – 1989) is the first type developed as a modification of the 3SGE Gen 1 engine, in which the compression ratio is decreased to 8.5, and a T-VIS variable length intake manifold is used. The 3SGTE rod length equals 138 mm. The turbocharger Toyota CT26 goes with the motor. The engine’s boost pressure is 10.2 psi (0.7 bar). The power of the engine is 185 horsepower. at 6,000 rpm, with a torque of 250 Nm (184 lb•ft) at 3,600 rpm.
The 3SGTE Gen 1 is mounted in Celica GT-Four ST165. The quarter mile time for the stock 3S-GTE Gen 1 was 15.5 sec.
5.2 3S-GTE Gen 2 (1989 – 1993) is the second type of the engine. Its camshafts have the following features: duration 236/236 deg, lift 8.2/8.2 mm. The CT26A turbocharger updated to some extent also goes with the engine. Its boost pressure is 9 psi (0.6 bar). The injectors with a capacity of 430 cc and 55 mm throttle body are also applied. The compression ratio is increased to 8.8, the 3SGTE Gen 2 power reaches 224 HP at 6,000 rpm. with a torque of 250 Nm (184 lb•ft) at 4,000 rpm.
The engine is mounted in Celica GT-Four ST185 and MR2. The ¼ mile time for the stock Celica GT-Four ST185 (3S-GTE Gen 2) was 15.2 sec.
5.3 3S-GTE Gen 3 (1993 – 1999) is the third type with a CT20b turbocharger. The boost pressure has been increased to 13 psi (0.9 bar). The most productive injectors with a capacity of 540 cc have been applied. The throttle body is 60 mm. The camshafts features are as follows: duration 240/236 deg, lift 8.7/8.2 mm, a compression ratio of 8.5, power is 245 HP at 6,000 rpm, and a torque of 304 Nm (224 lb•ft) at 4,000 rpm.
The engine 3SGTE Gen 3 is installed in Celica GT-Four ST205 and MR2. The ¼ mile time for the stock Celica GT-Four ST205 (3S-GTE Gen 3) was 13.8 sec.
5.4 3S-GTE Gen 4 (1999 – 2007) is the last motor type of the 3S generation in general. The 3SGTE Gen 4 engine was made with a modified exhaust manifold and a CT20b turbocharger is also applied. The stock boost pressure is 11.5 psi (0.8 bar). The camshafts of the engine have been replaced with the other ones possessing the following features: duration 248/246 deg, lift 8.75/8.65 mm. At the same time, the compression ratio has been increased to 9, power has been increased to 260 horsepower at 6,200 rpm, and a torque of 324 Nm (239 lb•ft) at 4,400 rpm.
The engine of a Toyota 3SGTE Gen 4 type was mounted in Caldina GT-Four ST215.
Toyota 3S engine problems and malfunctions
1. The HPFP problem. The malfunction of the high pressure fuel pump (HPFP) in the 3S-FSE engine is connected with a gasoline entering into the crankcase and a strong outwear afterwards. Its main signs are the following ones: the level of the oil with a gasoline odour increases, the vehicle twitches, works unsteadily, its engine fades, and the turns become feeble. Advice: you should buy a new HPFP and replace the old one.
2. The EGR valve problem. Due to the aging process, as well as due to the usage of a low quality gasoline, the EGR valve becomes carbonized; moreover, it starts to stick and gradually it can come to a halt. That case is accompanied with the such signs as: rough idling, a decrease of power and so on. The problem can be solved by means of either a EGR valve regular cleaning or its remove.
3. Rough idling. The engine comes to a halt. Mainly, the cardinal problems associated with the turns (rotations) are solve with a help of a throttle body cleaning. If it doesn’t help, you should clean the intake manifold.
4. If any high consumption of fuel in the 3S, you should adjust the ignition, clean the injectors, throttle body, and idle control valve.
5. The vibrations. If any, you should check the engine mounts, buy a new detail and replace the old one.
6. The 3S overheating. If any, then you should check the radiator cap.
In general, the Toyota 3S engine is safe and good enough for you to use it. In case of a regular maintenance, it will serve you a long time without big problems. Its main problem is age. Nowadays, these motors have been worn out seriously. Besides, it is not recommended to buy the 3S-FSE, as far as that engine may have its additional problems.
3S-GE N/A. ITB
Everyone knows that the Toyota 3S-GE and 3S-GTE engines are excellently adjusted to performance tuning and different upgrades. It is not suggested to modify the simpler engines 3S-FE/3S-FSE, as far as it may be necessary to replace all the stock internals for increasing their capacity.
The 3S-GE tuning will need buying the sporting camshafts (for instance, Brian Crower, duration 272 deg, lift 10.16 mm or more aggressive modifications) with valve springs and cam gears. After all, you should make a so-called port and polish of the head and manifold. To do that, you need to buy a performance exhaust system and adjust the ECU.
Those upgrades will allow you to increase the capacity by ~25%, and maximal turns of your 3S will reach more than 8,000 rpm.
The camshafts with a duration of ~300 deg, individual throttle bodies (ITB), high compression forged piston kit and a VVTi switched off system will add more capacity. That will allow you to increase the maximal rotations to more than 9,000 rpm and get a power of 250+ HP.
3S-GTE Turbo upgrade
How to increase the 3S-GTE engine capacity? It is as easy as a breathe. You simply should make a boost up. For that you simply need to buy 3S-GTE Gen 3 connecting rods, intake system (for instance Apexi power intake), a frontal intercooler, boost controller, blow off valve, 3S-GTE Gen 3 fuel injectors with a capacity of 540 cc, Toyota Supra US fuel pump, fuel pressure regulator (for exapmle AEM), camshafts Brian Crower 264/264 with vavle springs, downpipe, HKS ECU or something like that. All that can increase the pressure up to 17-18 psi (1-1.2 bar) and power up to more than 320 HP.
It is not possible to get more power at the stock turbocharger, so you should replace it. For that purpose you need to buy a 3SGTE turbo kit devised from the original Garrett GT28 or GTX30 turbochargers with the injectors of 800 cc. After that you must port and polish the cylinder head and replace the valves with the enlarged ones. You should buy the forged pistons (e.g. the Wiseco pistons, CP, etc.), connecting rods (for instance, the Eagle H-Beam rods), ARP studs, exhausted pipe system with a diameter of 3” and ECU VEMS. After adjusting, you will get a power of 450+ HP.